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2017年11月20日 10:11:15 | 作者:大河热点 | 来源:新华社
Consider the various ways they can influence your personal or company brand: A blog people actually want to , content marketing that lures thousands of new users to your products or services, an authentic voice that gets people interacting with you on social media, succinct business writing that saves time and eliminates uncertainty。想想语言影响你个人和公司的各种方式:一个人们想要阅读的客,内容营销吸引了成千上万的新用户关注你的产品和务,在社会媒体中相互影响的真实声音,简洁的商业文稿不仅节省时间也规避了不确定性。Wield them skillfully and words can be some of your most powerful assets。有技巧地使用语言,它会变成你最宝贵的财产。They can also be your undoing. Here are a handful of words and expressions to remove from your vocabulary:但它们也可以毁灭你。这里是几个你应该列入词汇黑名单的词语和表达。Actually and But事实上amp;但是Carolyn Kopprasch recently opined that when it comes to customer service these seemingly innocuous words can put distance between you and your customers. She gives these examples:卡洛琳#8226;科帕拉奇的观点是,当涉及到客户务,这些无伤大雅的词语可能会让你和顾客产生举例。她给出了以下例子:Actually, you can do this under ;Settings.;事实上,你可以在设置菜单下这么做。Sure thing, you can do this under ;Settings!; :)当然,你可以在设置菜单下这么做。:)The first sentence implies the customer was wrong about something, and you never want to elicit that sentiment。第一句话暗示顾客做错了,你肯定不想让顾客产生这种感觉。As for ;but,; look at the difference removing it makes, she points out。至于“但是”,注意去掉它之后的区别。I really appreciate you writing in, but unfortunately we don#39;t have this feature available。很高兴你能写下这点,但是很不巧,我们就没这个功能。I really appreciate you writing in! Unfortunately, we don#39;t have this feature available。真是很高兴你能写下来!不巧的是,我们没有这个功能。It#39;s a subtle fix that makes your message more positive。去掉之后,它微妙地让你表达的信息更加积极肯定。Just只要No matter the context, this one smacks of negativity. Consider phrases you might hear and how someone might interpret them。不管上下文是什么,这个词带有消极的意味。想想你可能听到的词组,大家对这些都是怎么解读的。;Just a minute.; Your priorities are somewhere other than helping me。“只要一分钟。”你的重点不是帮助我。;Just do XYZ.; You think I#39;m having a hard time figuring this out。“只要做X,Y,Z。”你认为我弄不明白。;I#39;m just an intern.; You think your power or influence is limited, in which case it certainly is。“我只不过是个实习生。”你认为你的能力或者影响力有局限,事实也正是如此。Blogger, speaker, and consultant Matt Monge takes special issue with the latter example. ;You#39;re not just your position. You#39;re an integral part of your organization,; he writes. ;You#39;re an individual with goals, dreams, abilities, and ideas. You can be a motivated, empowered, positive, valuable member of the team if you just decide to put forth the effort and work it takes to be those things.;主、发言人、顾问马特#8226;蒙日用后面这个例子做出解释。“你不仅仅只是在你的职位上。你是公司整体的一份子。”他写道,“你是个有目标、有梦想、有能力、有想法的人。如果你决定付出努力和劳动,你可以变成团队中积极、有权利、正面、有价值的一员。”Always and never总是amp;从不These are classic weapons wielded in relationships that show up in the form of ;You always do XYZ; or ;You never do A.; Really? Every single time? Think hard about it--do the behaviors that bother you the most truly happen without fail?这两个是在人际关系中使用的典型武器。“你总是做XYZ”或者“你从来不做A。”对么?每次都是?好好想一想—这些行为是不是能惹恼你?;Never; can also be unduly limiting. Even if you think something will never ever happen, voicing your negativity can discourage others from contributing ideas that could solve a problem。“从不”也可以是过分限制。哪怕你认为某件事不可能发生,说出你的消极看法会让别人打消贡献出能够解决问题的想法。Should应该Everyone has things they could be doing differently but ;shoulding on yourself; isn#39;t going to propel you to action. Not only will a self-inflicted guilt trip lead to balking, dwelling on your shortcomings can quickly spiral out of control and result in negative and counter-productive self-talk。每个人做的事都可能会有另一种方法来做。但是“你应该”这句话无法促使你行动。不仅仅自我施加的罪恶感会成为阻碍,细想自己的缺点也很快会让你失控,产生消极和事与愿违的自言自语。;#39;I should be [doing something more] leads to #39;Man, I lack discipline#39; which leads to #39;What#39;s wrong with me?#39; which leads to #39;Maybe I don#39;t have what it takes ... why do I even bother ... I should just quit now ...#39;; says psychologist and master violinist Dr. Noa Kageyama. ;And pretty soon we#39;re sitting on the couch watching reruns of The Office and eating a six-pack of Skinny Cow ice cream sandwiches.;“我本应该(做更多的事);的想法会产生;伙计,我缺乏自律;,然后就是“我怎么了?”,之后是“也许我没有所需的品质……为什么我要做呢……我应该现在就放弃……”心理学家兼小提琴大师景山诺亚说。“很快我们就会坐在沙发上,看着电影《办公室》重播,吃掉六包低脂冰淇淋三明治。Instead of ;should; Kageyama advises using a phrase that#39;s more specific and solution-focused. For example, you could tell yourself that next time you#39;ll spend five minutes on the behavior you#39;ve been avoiding before doing anything else. Or, ;This afternoon I will spend 20 minutes [searching online] for ideas that might make [this activity] more interesting and challenging in a motivating way,; he suggests。比起用“应该”一词,景山建议用更明确、更聚焦解决方案的词组来替代。比如,你下次可以告诉自己,在做任何事之前,你会花5分钟在需要避免的行为上。或者,“今天下午,我会花20分钟(上网搜索)能让(活动)更有趣更具有挑战性的想法。”他建议说。 /201409/331913The arrival of year 5774 was celebrated in Shanghai, as in Jewish communities all over the world, with the tones of a cantor reciting Rosh Hashana prayers in a synagogue filled with people honouring one of the world’s oldest religions. Just like everywhere, except that the state owns the synagogue and the Communist party decides when Jews can worship there, ie not often. 随着犹太历5774年新年的到来,上海的犹太社区和全世界所有犹太社区一样,聚在犹太会堂里吟唱犹太新年祷文。这座会堂是为纪念世界上最古老宗教之一的犹太教而修建的。与其他地方的犹太会堂唯一不同的是,这座会堂归政府所有,犹太人何时可以在里面举行宗教活动由共产党说了算(这意味着频度不会很高)。 Outside the main gate of the leafy compound in which the Ohel Rachel synagogue is located, a sign says “Shanghai Afforestation Commission” – although, thankfully, there is no indication that the building is used to store agricultural equipment between Jewish high holidays. But the Shanghai Education Administration, which actually owns the building, limits the days on which it does open for worship to a handful. The rest of the time, the city’s best preserved symbol of Judaism is closed both to the public and to the observant. 拉结会堂(Ohel Rachel)坐落在一座绿意盎然的院子里。院门外标牌写着:“上海市绿化委员会”。但值得庆幸的是,没有迹象显示,在不举行犹太教庆祝活动的时候,这里被用来存放农用设备。但因受到会堂实际拥有者——上海市教育局的限制,会堂一年中对信众开放的天数屈指可数。在开放日以外的其他时候,公众和信众都无法进入这座上海保存最完好的犹太教标志性会堂。 But don’t worry, it’s not really personal: China is far less anti-Semitic than just plain anti-religious. Chinese Christians have it far worse. 但别担心,这种安排并非有意针对犹太人。事实上,与其说中国反犹,不如说中国反宗教。在中国,基督徒的日子难过得多。 In fact, the story of Jews in China has remarkably little anti-Semitism in it, says Israeli Dvir Bar-Gal, whose vocation is researching and publicising Jewish life in Shanghai – including searching for thousands of desecrated Jewish gravestones that peasants have used as threshold stones, or to beat laundry against, since the cultural revolution. 事实上,专门研究和宣传在上海的犹太人生活的德维尔#8226;巴尔-贾勒(Dvir Bar-Gal)称,在华犹太人令人瞩目地几乎没有遭遇反犹活动。巴尔-贾勒的工作之一,是搜寻文革以来流散至民间的犹太人墓碑,这些墓碑被一些农民挖去,用作家里的门槛或洗衣板。 “There is no anti-Semitism here – here everything is about business,” he says, as he guides us through the streets of Jewish Shanghai on one of his daily tours, which take in some of the most famous buildings on the Shanghai Bund (built by Baghdadi Jews early in the last century) but also the Jewish ghetto. 巴尔-贾勒在他的“一日游”活动中,领着我们穿行于当年犹太人在上海经常活动的街道,一边告诉我们:“这里没有反犹主义——这儿一切都是生意。”他的路线既包括上海外滩(Shanghai Bund,由巴格达犹太人(Baghdadi Jews)在上世纪初建造)边的一些著名建筑,也包括当年的犹太人聚居区。 “No other city saved so many Jews,” says Mr Bar-Gal, as he tells the story of Shanghai, port of last resort during the Holocaust. When other nations closed their doors, only Shanghai (then controlled by Japan) did not require visas for entry and imposed no as on incoming Jews, more than 20,000 of whom fled there to escape Nazi Europe. 巴尔-贾勒为我们讲述上海的故事。在那场针对犹太人的大屠杀中,上海是犹太人最后的避难所。他说:“任何其他城市拯救的犹太人都没有上海多。”当其他国家对犹太人关上大门的时候,只有上海(当时已在日本控制下)不要求犹太人提供入境签,也不限制犹太人入境总人数。当时,为逃离纳粹控制下的欧洲,总计有逾两万犹太人来到了上海。 Shanghai was no promised land, even so. At the urging of the Gestapo, Japanese forces confined stateless Jews into Shanghai’s own version of a ghetto, in the Hongkou district, where they aly had 100,000 Chinese neighbours. One in 10 did not survive the war, but this was through no fault of their hosts: they died of diseases they shared with their cheek-by-jowl local neighbours, or at their own hands when they could bear no more poverty and hunger. But there were no concentration camps and no organised extermination of Jews in Shanghai – a rare human rights story where China ends up on the right side of history. 即便如此,犹太人在上海也并非高枕无忧。在盖世太保的敦促下,日军开始把来自沦陷国的犹太人限制于上海市虹口区的一个聚居区,让他们与10万名中国邻居挤在一起。区域内的犹太人有十分之一未能活着看到战争结束,但这不怪为他们提供容身之地的上海。他们要么死于疾病(被紧邻的上海邻居们传染),要么死于自杀(因为无法继续忍受贫困与饥饿)。但上海没有集中营,也没有任何有组织的清洗犹太人活动。在这段有关人权的历史章节中,中国罕有地站在了正义的一边。 Mr Bar-Gal takes us to one of the alleyways of that ghetto, where two men can scarcely walk abreast, where multiple families still crowd into dark, dank, tenement-style houses that can have changed little since the remaining Jews moved out of them after the Communist party won power in 1949. 巴尔-贾勒带我们来到当年上海犹太区里的一条巷子。那条巷子窄得几乎无法容纳两个人在里面并排行走,两旁的房屋光线昏暗、阴冷潮湿、简陋至极,却仍容纳了好几户家庭。自共产党在1949年夺取政权、犹太人搬离以来,这些房屋一直大体维持着原貌。 Today, perhaps 5,000-6,000 Jews make their home in the city, says Mr Bar-Gal. So when the Jewish high holy days rolled round this month, a couple of hundred of them chose to celebrate at Ohel Rachel, built in 1920 by Baghdadi tycoon Jacob Sassoon, and named after his wife. 巴尔-贾勒说,如今在上海安家的犹太人大约有5000至6000人。因此,在上月的犹太新年时,有几百名犹太人选择在拉结会堂庆祝节日。拉结会堂建于1920年,建造者是巴格达犹太人大亨雅各布#8226;沙逊(Jacob Sassoon),他用自己妻子的名字命名了这个会堂。 Rhonda Levin was there, on the eve of the new Jewish year 5774, sitting in the section reserved for women in the cavernous house of worship, where a row of artificial elephant ear plants runs straight down the centre to keep the men away from their womenfolk. And at the dinner afterwards, over apples dipped in honey and other traditional foods, she explained her theory of the relationship between Jews and Chinese – a theory I heard repeatedly that night. 在犹太历5774年新年前夕,朗达#8226;莱文(Rhonda Levin)就在拉结会堂,坐在专门的女宾席。在巨大的会堂中央,摆着一排人造绿叶植物,将男宾席和女宾席分隔开。在仪式后的晚餐上,莱文一边吃着蜜汁苹果和其他犹太传统食品,一边表达她对犹太人与中国人关系的理解——同样的见解我在那天晚上听过许多次。 “To me the Chinese are just like the Jews,” said Ms Levin, who said she was “in town on a trade fair”. “Hardworking, good at business, focused on family,” she said, while another tablemate opined that, per head, Chinese and Jews have more Nobel Prizes than the average guy, too. Those are the same stereotypes some people hold against Jews – but here they are seen as a good thing. 自称目前“在这里参加一个贸易展会”的莱文说:“我觉得,中国人跟犹太人很像,都勤劳肯干,有经商头脑,家庭观念重。”桌上另外一人提到,中国人和犹太人获得诺贝尔奖的比例也高于各民族平均水平。这些对犹太人的程式化认识正是某些人反犹的理由,但在中国,这些特点都被视为优点。 At the end of the day, and for whatever reason, China has a lot of time for Jews and Jews have a lot of time for China. And now that China has figured out that there are plenty of tourist renminbi to be made from the story of the Jews of Shanghai – and the Chinese who saved them – there seems a good chance that the mutual admiration society will endure even into 5775, and beyond. 最终,无论如何,中国很重视犹太人,犹太人也很重视中国。而如今既然中国已经发现,“在上海的犹太人”(以及挽救了许多犹太人的中国人)是个不错的噱头,能够让游客大掏腰包,两个民族的这种相互欣赏,看上去很有可能会持续到犹太历5775年,并一直持续下去。 /201310/259680

Chinese civilization stretches back at least to the 3rd millennium . It is the source of many of the world’s great inventions, including paper, the compass, gunpowder, and printing, not to mention china (porcelain) itself. But maybe the greatest contribution that the country and its language have made to the Western world is tea. The drink is first mentioned in English in 1655. The Chinese connection first found in US English in the early 20th century.中华文明可以至少追溯到公元前300万年。它是世界上许多伟大发明的源头,例如造纸术,指南针,火药和印刷术。更不用说还有瓷器本身。但是对中西方语言文化交流作出最大贡献的是茶。茶最早在1655年引入英国,而英语和汉语的关联,最早也是在20世纪初的美式英语中被发现。People drinking something stronger than tea might say chin-chin, or ‘cheers!’ This is a mangled pronunciation of qing qing, a Chinese greeting. Another ‘doubled’ word is chop-chop, or ‘quickly’. Chop here is a pidgin Chinese rendition of Chinese kuaì ‘quick, nimble’, and is also found in chopstick.人们在喝比茶更浓的饮品时可能会说“chin chin”或者“干杯”!这是模仿中国“请请”的发音。另外一个双音节词则是”chop-chop”,意为“快快”。这里的chop基于“筷子”的“筷”的发音,是对中式发音“快”的模仿。Our range of savoury relishes was extended when traders introduced us to ketchup at the end of the 17th century. The name may come from Chinese ‘tomato juice’.在17世纪末番茄酱被引入之后,菜肴的风味有了延展。这个名字可能和汉语中的“番茄汁”相关。Contact with imperial China in the early 19th century introduced Westerners to the Chinese custom of kowtowing—kneeling down and touching the forehead on the ground in worship or submission. The word means literally ‘to knock the head’.19世纪初期,西方人开始了解了封建王朝叩头的礼节——双膝跪地,前额轻触地面以显示尊敬或降之意。这个词字面意思就是“头和地面相碰”。Ginseng is a plant whose root is credited with various health-giving and medicinal properties. Its Chinese name, rénshén, literally means ‘man root’, a reference to the root’s forked shape, which supposedly resembles a person.Ginseng是一种植物的根茎,被认为可以促进健康并有药用价值。它的中文名字“人参”的意思是“人的根”,因其形状酷似人形而得名。Gung-ho, meaning ‘unthinkingly enthusiastic and eager, especially about fighting’, dates from the Second World War. It is from Chinese gōnghé ‘to work together’, and was adopted as a slogan by the US Marines fighting in the Pacific under General Evans Carlson (1896–1947). He organized ‘Gung-ho’ meetings to discuss problems and explain orders to promote cooperation.Gung-ho,意味不加思考的热情和冲动,尤为好斗。它的起源可追溯至二战。原形为汉语中的“共和”,即一起工作,并在埃文斯卡尔森将军 (1896–1947)领导的太平洋海战中被引入作为口号。他组织召开“共和”会议来研讨问题,促进合作。Increasing interest in our living spaces in the 1990s led to the popularity of feng shui, the ancient Chinese system of designing buildings and arranging objects in rooms to achieve a positive flow of energy and so bring happiness or good luck. It goes back a long way in English, and even had an entry in the Encyclopaedia Britannica of 1797.对于生存环境的愈发好奇使得在20世纪90年代,“风水”一词被引入,它指的是中国古代建筑及安排房间内物品摆放以达到能量均衡,从而带来幸福安康的一种方式。该词早在1797年就被收入大不列颠百科全书。Not all our Chinese words are ancient, though. China’s first manned space flight in 2003 gave us taikonaut, a Chinese astronaut—taikong means ‘outer space’.然而也不是所有的中文都源自古代。2003年,中国对太空领域的第一次载人探索使得新词taikonaut诞生,意味中国宇航员。 /201410/333735

We all know what makes for good character in soldiers. We#39;ve seen the movies about heroes who display courage, loyalty and coolness under fire. But what about somebody who sits in front of a keyboard all day? Is it possible to display and cultivate character if you are just an information age office jockey, alone with a memo or your computer?我们都知道,对士兵而言,何为优秀品质的要义。我们看过的一些电影所刻画的英雄人物,在炮火中表现出了勇气、忠诚和冷静。但对一天到晚坐在键盘前的人而言,又是什么呢?如果你仅仅是信息时代里的一个写字楼职员,成天与备忘录或电脑相伴,那你还有机会展现和培养自己的品质吗?Of course it is. Even if you are alone in your office, you are thinking. Thinking well under a barrage of information may be a different sort of moral challenge than fighting well under a hail of bullets, but it#39;s a character challenge nonetheless.当然可以。即便是独自待在办公室里,你也在思考。和在林弹雨下好好战斗相比,面对大量信息时好好思考可能是一种截然不同的道德挑战,但它仍然不失为对品性的一种挑战。In their 2007 book, ;Intellectual Virtues,; Robert C. Roberts of Baylor University and W. Jay Wood of Wheaton College list some of the cerebral virtues. We can all grade ourselves on how good we are at each of them.贝勒大学(Baylor University)的罗伯特·C·罗伯茨(Robert C. Roberts)和威顿学院(Wheaton College)的W·杰伊·伍德(W. Jay Wood)在2007年出版的《智识美德》(Intellectual Virtues)一书中,列出了一些智识上的美德。我们可以逐项给自己打分,看看自己做得怎么样。First, there is love of learning. Some people are just more ardently curious than others, either by cultivation or by nature.第一条是爱学习。后天养成的也好,天生的也罢,有些人就是比另外一些人具有更强烈的好奇心。Second, there is courage. The obvious form of intellectual courage is the willingness to hold unpopular views. But the subtler form is knowing how much risk to take in jumping to conclusions. The reckless thinker takes a few pieces of information and leaps to some faraway conspiracy theory. The perfectionist, on the other hand, is unwilling to put anything out there except under ideal conditions for fear that she could be wrong. Intellectual courage is self-regulation, Roberts and Wood argue, knowing when to be daring and when to be cautious. The philosopher Thomas Kuhn pointed out that scientists often simply ignore facts that don#39;t fit with their existing paradigms, but an intellectually courageous person is willing to look at things that are surprisingly hard to look at.第二条是勇气。智识的勇气有一种明显的表现形式,即乐于持有不受欢迎的观点。但它还有一种更微妙的表现形式,那就是知道急于下结论会带来多大的风险。莽撞的思考者会撷取少量信息,迅速推导出虚无缥缈的阴谋论。完美主义者则与此相反,如果条件不完备,她是不愿意下任何定论的,因为担心自己可能出错。罗伯茨和伍德说,智识的勇气是一种自律,知道在什么时候该大胆、在什么时候该谨慎。哲学家托马斯·库恩曾指出,科学家们常常简单粗暴地忽略掉跟既有范式不相符的事实;但一个人如果具有智识的勇气,会乐于去研究那些异常难于接受的事情。Third, there is firmness. You don#39;t want to be a person who surrenders his beliefs at the slightest whiff of opposition. On the other hand, you don#39;t want to hold dogmatically to a belief against all evidence. The median point between flaccidity and rigidity is the virtue of firmness. The firm believer can build a steady worldview on solid timbers but still delight in new information. She can gracefully adjust the strength of her conviction to the strength of the evidence. Firmness is a quality of mental agility.第三条是坚定。你肯定不想做一个听到些许反对的声音就放弃自己观点的人。另一方面,你肯定也不愿罔顾所有据,死抱着一个观点不放。坚定这一美德就存在于软弱和顽固的中间点上。坚定地持有某些观念的人,可以用可靠的素材搭建起稳固的世界观,但仍然乐于接触新信息。她能够根据据的力度,优雅地调整自己对某个观点的相信程度。坚定也是一种机敏。Fourth, there is humility, which is not letting your own desire for status get in the way of accuracy. The humble person fights against vanity and self-importance. He#39;s not writing those sentences people write to make themselves seem smart; he#39;s not thinking of himself much at all. The humble researcher doesn#39;t become arrogant toward his subject, assuming he has mastered it. Such a person is open to learning from anyone at any stage in life.第四条是谦逊,有了它,你就不会让对地位的渴望妨碍自己做出准确的判断。谦逊的人会与虚荣和自大做斗争。他的笔下不会出现人们常写的那些让自己看起来很聪明的句子;他根本不是自视甚高的人。谦逊的研究人员不会在其研究领域妄自尊大,想当然地认为自己精通一切。无论处于人生的哪个阶段,这样的人都愿意向他人学习。Fifth, there is autonomy. You don#39;t want to be a person who slavishly adopts whatever opinion your teacher or some author gives you. On the other hand, you don#39;t want to reject all guidance from people who know what they are talking about. Autonomy is the median of knowing when to bow to authority and when not to, when to follow a role model and when not to, when to adhere to tradition and when not to.第五条是自主。你肯定不想盲从于导师或哪个作家表达的任何观点。另一当方面,你肯定也不愿将那些内行人士的所有指导拒之门外。自主的美德在于,知道在什么时候该从权威,什么时候该坚持己见;什么时候该向榜样学习,什么时候该摆脱榜样;什么时候该遵循传统,什么时候该予以摒弃。Finally, there is generosity. This virtue starts with the willingness to share knowledge and give others credit. But it also means hearing others as they would like to be heard, looking for what each person has to teach and not looking to triumphantly pounce upon their errors.最后一条是慷慨。这种美德的起点是愿意分享知识,并给予他人应有的承认。不过,慷慨也意味着,在别人希望发出声音时予以倾听,寻找每个人能为人师表之处,不去洋洋自得地在他人身上纠错。We all probably excel at some of these virtues and are deficient in others. But I#39;m struck by how much of the mainstream literature on decision-making treats the mind as some disembodied organ that can be programed like a computer.在这些美德中,我们可能都是在某些方面出色,在另一些方面有所欠缺。但让我感触的是,居然有那么多关于制定决策方面的主流文章将思想当成某种脱离个人的东西,能像台计算机那样按编好的程序操作。In fact, the mind is embedded in human nature, and very often thinking well means pushing against the grain of our nature — against vanity, against laziness, against the desire for certainty, against the desire to avoid painful truths. Good thinking isn#39;t just adopting the right technique. It#39;s a moral enterprise and requires good character, the ability to go against our lesser impulses for the sake of our higher ones.实际上,思想蕴含在人性之中,而在很多情况下,好好思考意味着战胜我们的本性——抗击虚荣、懒惰、对确定性的渴求、对避免痛苦事实的渴望。好的思维不仅仅是采用正确的技巧。它是一种道德勇气,需要良好的品性,是克低等冲动来获取更高尚目标的能力。Montaigne once wrote that ;We can be knowledgeable with other men#39;s knowledge, but we can#39;t be wise with other men#39;s wisdom.; That#39;s because wisdom isn#39;t a body of information. It#39;s the moral quality of knowing how to handle your own limitations. Warren Buffett made a similar point in his own sphere, ;Investing is not a game where the guy with the 160 I.Q. beats the guy with the 130 I.Q. Once you have ordinary intelligence, what you need is the temperament to control the urges that get other people into trouble.;蒙田曾写道,“即使我们可以凭借别人的知识成为学者,但要成为哲人,却只能靠我们自己的智慧。”这是因为,智慧并非大量信息的简单集合。它是一种知晓如何应对自身局限性的道德品质。沃伦·巴菲特(Warren Buffett)曾在其领域中发表过类似的见解,“投资不是智商160的家伙打败智商130的人。只要你智力正常,你只需要自己的性情能够控制住让别人陷入麻烦的冲动。”Character tests are pervasive even in modern everyday life. It#39;s possible to be heroic if you#39;re just sitting alone in your office. It just doesn#39;t make for a good movie.即便是在当代日常生活中,对个人品质的考验也无处不在。就算你只是独自坐在办公室里,也可能成为英雄。只不过,这拍不成一部劲爆的电影。 /201409/325534

Tesco is using its food delivery lorries to pick up rubbish from stores in an attempt to cut costs.据英国《卫报》报道,英国零售连锁公司乐购(Tesco)为了降低成本,用送食品的车运超市垃圾。The UK#39;s largest retailer has stopped using waste contractors to pick up and dispose of general rubbish, including unsold food, from its 600 largest supermarkets. Instead, bags of waste are piled into metal wheeled cages lined with clear plastic. These cages are picked up by the same trucks that deliver food to the stores once they have emptied their load. The trucks drop off the rubbish at a waste centre before returning to Tesco#39;s distribution centres to pick up more groceries and food to start the cycle again.这家英国最大的零售商不再使用垃圾承包商从其600家大型超市里收取和处理日常垃圾(包括未售出的食物)了。所有的垃圾都打成包,堆放在有金属轮式的笼子中,并用透明胶带挷住。食品车把食品送到商店之后,在清空后把这些笼子装上,运到垃圾处理中心倒掉,然后再返回乐购配送中心取新货物,如此周而复始。A Tesco spokeswoman said the system, which does not involve the smaller vans that make home deliveries to customers, was more environmentally friendly. ;We have recently introduced a new way of managing waste in some of our stores, which will remove 20,000 additional trips a year and reduce our carbon emissions by 4.5 tonnes a year.;乐购的一名女发言人称,这个制度不会使用给消费者送货上门的小货车,更为环保。“近来,我们在一些商店中使用了一种处理垃圾的新方法,每年会减少两万次额外运输、减少4.5吨碳排放量。”The spokeswoman insisted there was no risk to food hygiene: ;We have high standards of hygiene and food safety, and we require all vehicles to be inspected and cleared after every trip, with additional cleaning if required, alongside regular deep cleans.;她坚称,食品卫生不会受到影响,“我们有很高的食品卫生和安全标准,而且规定每次运输后,所有的货车都要进行检查和清洗。如果需要,还会进行额外清理,并会定期彻底清理。”However, notices posted at Tesco#39;s recycling centre, seen by the Guardian, suggest only a quarter of the delivery fleet is sanitised or washed each week, although any driver is able to request a wash for his lorry if he feels it necessary.但是,《卫报》从乐购回收中心里张贴的通知上看到,每周只有四分之一的货车经过了消毒或清洗,尽管司机在觉得有必要时可以要求清洗。One source close to the process said the thin plastic used to line the cages that transport bin bags was easily damaged so that liquid from putrefying rubbish could spill on to the floor of lorries. Meanwhile store staff sometimes did not have time to sort or wrap the rubbish adequately.据知情人士透露,捆绑运送垃圾袋的笼子用的塑料胶条很薄,容易损坏,因此,腐烂的垃圾中的液体会洒在车厢里。同时,商店工作人员有时没有时间能充分地分类或打包垃圾。The source said there was not the time or resources to wash every trailer after each collection of general waste. With hundreds of Tesco stores around the country, some lorries can do several deliveries a day.该知情人士称,每次收集垃圾后,没有时间和物力去清洗每辆车。英国有数购商店,有些货车一天能运送好几次货物。;I know they can#39;t live up to the expectation of any reasonable customer,; he said. ;It#39;s penny pinching and it#39;s going to blow up because when it gets hot that smell is going to magnify 10-fold,; said the source.“我知道他们不能达到顾客的合理期待。”他说,“这样做很小气,而且会臭不可闻,因为当天热的时候,臭味会增加十倍。”The source said, however, that food would never touch the floor of the delivery trailer because it is packaged and transported within wheeled cages.不过,该知情人士称,食物不会碰到车厢地板,因为它们是包裹起来并装在带有轮子的笼子里的。Legally, all vehicles and containers used for transporting food must be kept clean and well-maintained to ensure food is not contaminated.根据法律规定,所有运输食物的车辆和容器都必须保持清洁和完好,以确保食物不受污染。A spokesperson for the Food Standards Agency said: ;The law is clear. where non-food products are carried there must be suitable cleaning before foods are carried. Receptacles or containers used to transport food cannot be used to transport anything else where this might lead to contamination.;英国食品标准署的发言人说:“法律是明确的。在运送非食品货物之后,要进行适当清理,才能继续运送食物。运送食物的容器不能用来运送其他任何东西,否则会造成食品污染。”It is not uncommon for supermarkets to transport dry waste, such as cardboard or plastic, from stores to recycling centres in empty grocery delivery lorries. The process is called backfilling and saves both money and fuel, so is seen as environmentally friendly.超市用空货车把干燥的垃圾(如硬纸板或塑料)送往回收中心是常事。这一过程被称为回填,可以节省金钱和时间,也很环保。Only one other supermarket – Sainsbury#39;s – backfills with general waste and under its system bin bags are put into large plastic crates that are washed each time before reuse. A spokesperson said: ;We never have waste or recyclate on board our delivery lorries at the same time as products for sale in our stores.;只有一家超市,塞恩斯伯里超市(Sainsbury#39;s)每次在回填前都把装垃圾的大塑料框清洗干净。该公司发言人说:“我们从不在运商品的同时运送垃圾。”Marks amp; Spencer backfills its food trucks with food waste, but this is stored in specially designed large cardboard boxes lined with a heavy plastic.马莎百货(Marks amp; Spencer)虽然把垃圾回填上车,但是垃圾是放在专门设计的、衬有结实塑料膜的大纸箱中的。Asda, Morrisons and Waitrose all said they never transport general waste in their food lorries.阿斯达(Asda)、莫里森(Morrisons)和维特罗斯(Waitrose)都称自己从来没有用运食物的车运过垃圾。Neal Austin, Morrisons#39; logistics and supply chain director, said: ;Technically, we would have a concern about the risk of contamination given the closed environment within the trailers. More importantly, we don#39;t believe our customers would feel comfortable knowing that the fresh food they were eating had been delivered in a lorry that a few hours earlier had been carrying waste food products.;莫里森公司(Morrisons)的物流与供应链主管尼尔?奥斯汀说:“从技术上来看,我们担心货车的封闭空间很容易弄脏食物。更重要的是,顾客如果得知,运送他们食物的货车就在几小时前装过垃圾的话,肯定会不舒的。” /201312/267442

Travel season is here, when so many Americans decamp to Cape Cod or the Jersey Shore. All of which is wonderful, and some day I plan to do a 10-part series on the world’s best beaches.旅游旺季到了,许多美国人选择到科德角或泽西海岸游玩。这些地方都很出色,我打算哪天做一个世界十佳海滩系列专题。But travel can also be an education, a step toward empathy and international understanding. So for those with an adventurous streak who want to get beyond the madding crowd this summer, here are a few little-known travel spots that I recommend.但旅行也是一种教育,一种面向感同身受与国际间相互理解而踏出的一步。所以,我向那些想要躲开汹涌人潮的冒险家推荐几个鲜为人知的旅行目的地。These just might be the world’s coolest places.它们有可能是全球最酷的地方。Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. This coral island in the Pacific Ocean was the site of American nuclear weapons tests in the 1940s and 1950s, but after decades left to itself it is now dazzlingly beautiful in a way that belies its history. Radiation has dissipated, and the deserted white-sand beaches are lined with coconut palms and scattered with seashells and an occasional giant sea turtle — which will hurriedly call to its friends: Look, there’s a rare sight, a human! The island is a reminder of the redemptive power of time and nature.马绍尔群岛的比基尼环礁。这座珊瑚岛位于太平洋,在20世纪40至50年代曾是美国的核武试验基地,但在数十年寂静的休养生息之后,今日的它美艳惊人,初见时我们根本猜不到那段历史。辐射已经消失,与世隔绝的雪白沙滩上是成排的椰子树,星星点点的贝壳,偶有巨大的海龟奔走相告:“快看!那儿有个稀罕东西——人类!”这座小岛会让你想到,时间与大自然有着何等强大的自愈力。Potosí, Bolivia. Perhaps no country in Latin America is more picturesque than Bolivia, and the most memorable Bolivian city may be Potosí. European explorers discovered a huge silver mountain here in the 1540s, and, in the 1600s, this was one of the major cities in the world. Tourists can descend the silver mines, and it is a searing and unforgettable experience. You go down hundreds of feet in tiny, sweltering tunnels thick with dust, talk to some of the miners, and get a glimpse of what life is like for the many Bolivians who work each day in the mines. After a couple of hours deep underground, sometimes struggling to breathe and fretting about cave-ins, you may have new empathy for the laborers responsible for silver bowls and cutlery.玻利维亚的波多西。拉美恐怕没有哪个国家比玻利维亚风景更美的了,而玻利维亚最令人难忘的城市大概是波多西。16世纪40年代,欧洲探险家们在这里发现了巨大的银山,到了17世纪,它成了一座世界级的重要城市。游客可以向下爬到银矿底部,这将是一场永生难忘的焦灼经历。穿过许多狭小酷热、烟尘弥漫的隧道,下行几百英尺,跟矿工聊天,对每天在银矿里卖力的无数玻利维亚百姓的生活投去惊鸿一瞥。在幽深的地底度过两三个小时,有时艰于呼吸,有时因封闭而燥热难当,这些感受或许会让你对银餐具的源头——矿工,多一些恻隐之心。Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. Maybe our best family trip started at Victoria Falls, which drenches you with spray and is so vast that it makes Niagara Falls seem like a backyard creek. Then we rented a car and made our way to Hwange National Park, which was empty of people but crowded with zebras, giraffes, elephants and more. Zimbabwe has far fewer tourists than South Africa or Kenya, and there’s less crime as well.津巴布韦的维多利亚瀑布。我们最精的合家游大概就是维多利亚瀑布之旅,水雾打湿了我们全身,它如此壮阔,相形之下,尼亚加拉瀑布简直是后院的水渠。看完瀑布之后我们租车去了万基国家公园,园内人迹罕至,却有成群的斑马、长颈鹿、大象等各种动物。津巴布韦的游客比南非或肯尼亚少得多,治安状况也好得多。Amritsar, India. The Golden Temple, Sikhism’s holiest shrine, is in northwestern India near the Pakistani border, and it is a delightful place to contemplate the draw of faith. A four-century-old temple set in a lake, it attracts Sikhs from around the world. It is much less visited by tourists than the Taj Mahal, yet it is just as serene, grand and unforgettable. You walk the circuit of the lake barefoot, with your head covered, and, for the full experience, you can sleep and eat in temple buildings.印度的阿姆利则。金庙是锡克教最神圣的殿堂,它位于印度西北部与巴基斯坦接壤的地方。这个美不胜收的地方最适合沉思信仰的魔力。这座经历了四百年风雨的古庙坐落于湖边,吸引了世界各地的锡克教徒。此地的游客远不如泰姬陵那么多,却同样神圣庄严,令人难忘。你可以戴上头巾沿着湖畔赤足漫步,为了得到更完整的体验,不妨在庙内住宿用餐。Tanna, Vanuatu. This remote island in the South Pacific is notable for its live volcano that you can climb at night. From the lip, you look down and see the fires and molten lava. It’s a natural fireworks display. The people of Tanna are also likely to invite you to drink kava, the local intoxicant, or perhaps join a village dance. The local faith tradition is a cargo cult. People believe in a god they call John Frum, perhaps based on an American military officer around the time of World War II who gave islanders their first glimpse of industrial products. One theory is that he introduced himself as “John from America,” but only the first two words survived and became his name.瓦努阿图的塔纳岛。这座遥远的南太平洋小岛之所以闻名于世,是因为有一座游客可以乘夜色攀登的活火山。从火山口望下去,可以看见火焰和炽热的岩浆,堪称天然的焰火表演。塔纳岛的居民可能会邀你喝一杯醉人的本地卡瓦酒,或与村民一起跳舞。本地人信仰的是一种货物崇拜。他们的神灵名叫约翰·弗拉姆(John Frum),大概与“二战”期间为岛民发放工业产品的美国军官有关,那些货物是岛民平生第一次见到。有种理论认为,军官自称“美国人约翰”(John from America),但岛民只记住了前两个单词,以为那是他的名字。Cu Chi Tunnels, Vietnam. Follow a guide in wriggling on your stomach underground through these tunnels dug by Vietcong soldiers who used them and even lived in them during the Vietnam War. The tunnels are now widened to accommodate portly Americans, and they are still a tight fit. After a couple hundred feet of crawling in the tunnels, you’re desperate to come up again, and you understand that military victory is sometimes not about weaponry but about commitment.越南古芝隧道。跟着向导,在地下隧道中匍匐行进。这些隧道是越南战争期间由越共士兵挖掘而成的,他们甚至住在里面。如今,隧道已拓宽,好让大腹便便的美国游客得以通行,不过仍然感觉很紧。在隧道中爬行两三百英尺之后,你绝望了,几乎不敢相信自己还能出得去,此刻你就会明白,有时打胜仗的原因不是武器精良,而是有赤诚的信念。There’s nothing wrong, of course, with a delicious week at the beach with a pile of books. But if you’re hankering to escape the crowds this summer, encounter new worlds and come back with a tale, think about some of these destinations. The tourism infrastructure may not be great, but the people (or elephants) will make up for it.当然,躺在沙滩上看小说度过惬意的一周,也没有什么不对。可是,如果你渴望躲开夏季的人潮,遇见全新的世界,带着传奇归来,那就考虑一下这几个地方吧。它们的旅游基础设施或许不够完美,但淳朴的村民(或大象)却能弥补不足。When I visited the Pacific island country of Kiribati years ago, I made a reservation by phone to make sure I would have a place to stay. The man at the hotel agreed to hold me a spot, but he skipped the details.几年前造访太平洋小国基里巴斯之前,为了确保能有住宿的地方,我提前打电话预订。酒店接电话的男子答应为我保留房间,但却略过了细节。“I don’t need the name,” he said. “If there’s an American at the airport, I’ll recognize him.”“我不需要知道你的名字。”他说,“只要在机场看见一个美国人,我就知道是你。” /201409/329635

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